First In-Use Study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Conducted in a Clinical Environment

UV-C High Level Disinfection
is Effective Against HPV in a Clinical Environment

The aim of this study was to determine if ultraviolet light – C spectrum (UV-C) disinfection is more efficient than low level disinfection (LLD) in routine clinical conditions, especially against HPV.1

The study  compares two protocols usually found in infection prevention practice when using endocavity ultrasound probes.

  1. The simple protocol consisted of performing LLD with a multipurpose wipe on a probe used with a disposable cover.
  2. The more rigorous protocol consisted of performing high level disinfection (HLD) on a probe that was partially cleaned but would appear visibly clean to the probe user.

The study was conducted at the University Hospital of Lyon,  Gynecology department

It was carried out in three successive phases.

The three-phase study evaluated UV-C disinfection (90sec HLD cycle) efficacy against HPV found on vaginal ultrasound probes and its efficacy compared to LLD wipes.

  • The first two phases (in-Uses Test) evaluated UV-C disinfection of vaginal ultrasound probes in a clinical environment.
  • The final phase (Simulated In-Uses Test) artificially contaminated dedicated probes  to better understand the mechanism of vaginal ultrasound probe contamination and the efficacy of UV-C disinfection on HPV-contaminated probes. 

UV-C HLD is more effective in Ultrasound Probe Disinfection than Low level Disinfection (LLD) in a Clinical In-Use Test


  • The study took place in a high-turnover gynecological practice in a specialized university hospital (12,000 emergency consultations with 8,000 vaginal ultrasound examinations annually).
  • The study focused on the evaluation of Antigermix® S1 (AS1), a UV-C disinfection system designed by Germitec. It was the first to evaluate UV-C disinfection efficacy against HPV in real conditions when the UV-C system is run within a short time cycle (90 seconds).
  • The results of this study indicated that UV-C can be used to ensure patient safety during ultrasound examinations
  • The second and third parts confirmed that the LLD procedure alone is unsafe but when using a HLD method such as UV-C, it can reliably inactivate HPV. This method is strongly recommended to ensure patient safety.
  • Various benefits of using a UV-C system include; ease of use, effectiveness, safety for the user and faster reprocessing times than other decontamination systems.
  • The study highlighted the need for standardised solutions that include HPV.


The research results confirm UV-C HLD is more efficient in Ultrasound Probe Disinfection than LLD in a Clinical In-Use Test.  Highlighting that UV-C  HLD is an easily adaptable solution to a clinical healthcare environment. 1

Hypernova Chronos
is leading the way in
High Level Disinfection (HLD)

Chronos® automated UV-C High Level Disinfection (HLD) system is proven to kill native human papillomavirus (HPV) both in vitro and in clinical use.2,3 

Chronos® automated UV-C High Level Disinfection (HLD) system is proven to kill native human papillomavirus (HPV) both in vitro and in clinical use.
  1. Maxime Pichon, Karine Lebail-Carval, Geneviève Billaud, Bruno Lina, Pascal Gaucherand and Yahia Mekki (2019)
    Decontamination of Intravaginal Probes Infected by Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Using UV-C Decontamination System. J. Clin.
    Med, 8, 1776; doi:10.3390/jcm8111776
  2. Meyers J, Ryndock E, Conway MJ, Meyers C, Robison R. Susceptibility of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 to clinical disinfectants. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014;69(6):1546-50.
  3. Meyers C, Milici J, Robison R (2017) UVC radiation as an effective disinfectant method to inactivate human papillomaviruses. PLoS ONE 12 (10): e0187377.
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