Healthcare Associated Infections (HAIs)

Evidence-based practice is used to prevent and control HAIs.

In the US, an estimated 5-10% of hospitalised patients experience a HAI every year, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality.1

In Australia, it is estimated that 200,000 HAI occur annually.2

  • Central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) Approximately 4000 episodes in Australian intensive care units each year. Mortality rate of 4–20% with estimated cost of $36.26 million.3
  • International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance data from January 2010 through December 2015 (703 intensive care units in 50 countries) reported a CLABSI rate of 4.1 per 1000 central line days.4
  • One systematic review and meta-analysis regarding HAIs in Southeast Asian countries (Brunei, Myanmar, Cambodia, East Timor, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) found an overall prevalence rate of 9.1% with the most common microorganisms being P. aeruginosa, the Klebsiella species, and Acinetobacter baumannii.5

There have been numerous cases of cross infection risks to patients due to manual ultrasound probe reprocessing:

  • Patient contacting hepatitis C virus after transrectal prostate biopsy as part of an individual screening for prostate cancer.
  • Patient contracting hepatitis B linked to improper ultrasound transducer disinfection that led to a fatality.3-7
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